Thyroid In Women

Thyroid Reference Guide
Thyroid Reference Guide

Thyroid in Women: Everything You Need To Know

Women with Health Problems

Did you know that thyroid problems are women’s most common hormonal disorders? In fact, one in eight American women will experience a endocrine issue at some point in their lives.

If you are one of these women, it is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of thyroid problems so that you can get treatment as soon as possible.

On this website, we will present everything you need to know about thyroid in women. We will cover this condition’s causes, symptoms, and treatment options. We hope this information will help you care for yourself and your health!

When your endocrine system isn’t functioning correctly, it can impact your entire body. Your body produces too much thyroid hormone when you have hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, hypothyroidism occurs when your body doesn’t produce sufficient thyroid hormone. Medical professionals should treat both of these serious conditions.

What is the thyroid?

The endocrine gland is a small organ wrapped around the windpipe (trachea) in the front of the neck.

It looks like a butterfly, with a small center and two broad wings that go around the side of your throat. There are glands in the body.

All over your body, you have glands that make and release substances that help your body do certain things. Your thyroid produces enough hormones, and they help control many of your body’s most important functions.

How do thyroid problems affect women? What causes thyroid problems in women?
What is an underactive thyroid in women? Thyroid problems in older women
What is an overactive thyroid in women? Thyroid problems in younger women

How do thyroid problems affect women?

How do thyroid problems affect women
Image – The New York Times

A lymph gland disease is more common in women than in men. One out of every eight women will have thyroid problems at some point in her life. Imbalances can lead to:

  • Problems with your menstrual period. Your menstrual cycle is controlled in part by your pituitary gland. If you have too much or too little hormone, your periods can be very light, heavy, or strange at times. If you suffer from this illness, your periods may stop for a few months or even longer.
    This is called amenorrhea. If your immune system causes the disease, it may also affect other glands, such as your ovaries. This can cause menopause to come early (before age 40).
  • Problems getting pregnant. When an endocrine gland disease impacts a woman’s menstrual cycle, it also impacts the ovulation phase of the cycle. Because of this, it may be more difficult for you to become pregnant.
  • Problems during pregnancy. Having thyroid issues while pregnant might put the mother and the unborn child at risk for developing health complications.
  • People sometimes think that the signs of a thyroid disorder are the signs of menopause. Thyroid disease, especially hypothyroidism, is more likely to develop after menopause.

What is an underactive  thyroid in women?

Supports a healthy thyroid for energy focus and clarityAn underactive thyroid, also known as hypothyroidism, is a condition that occurs when the gland does not produce enough hormones.. This can cause various symptoms, including weight gain, fatigue, dry skin and hair loss.

The leading cause of this dysfunction is an autoimmune disorder called Hashimoto’s disease. Other potential causes include certain medications or radiation treatment to the neck area.

Treatment typically involves taking medications to replace the missing hormones and manage the underlying autoimmune disorder. With proper care and treatment, most people suffering from it can manage their symptoms and live healthy, everyday lives.

What is an overactive  thyroid in women?

An overactive thyroid, also known as hyperthyroidism, is a relatively common hormonal condition that occurs when there is too much hormone in the body. Excess levels of hormones can lead to increased metabolism and a range of other symptoms, including nervousness and anxiety.

The causes of an overactive thyroid are not fully understood. Still, it can be triggered by many factors, such as certain medications, underlying health conditions like Graves’ disease or autoimmune disorders, or lifestyle factors like poor nutrition or excessive stress.

Fortunately, this condition is usually treatable with medication, dietary changes, and lifestyle modifications. Surgery (Thyroidectomy) may also be an option for people with more severe symptoms that do not respond well to these treatments. Overall, managing an overactive gland is often just a matter of making healthy lifestyle choices and getting proper medical care when necessary.

What causes thyroid problems in women?

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are the two most common types of thyroid disease in females. Both of these conditions can be brought on by other diseases that affect how a woman’s thyroid gland works.

What is underactive thyroid in womenHypothyroidism can be caused by the following:

  • Thyroiditis: This is an inflammation of the thyroid gland, which makes it swell up. The amount of hormones can decrease if you have thyroiditis.
  • Postpartum thyroiditis: After giving birth, 5% to 9% of women have this condition. It’s usually a short-term problem.
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s cells attack and damage the organ. It is not painful. This is a disease that runs in families.
  • Iodine deficiency: Hormones are made by the thyroid, which needs iodine to do its job. Several million people around the world have too little iodine in their bodies.
  • A non-functioning gland: Some people are born with a endocrine gland that doesn’t work right. About 1 in 4,000 babies is born with this. If the child isn’t taken care of, they could have physical and mental problems in the future. All babies get a blood test in the hospital to check how well their thyroids are working.
  • Sometimes hypothyroidism can happen when the pituitary gland doesn’t make enough endocrine-stimulating hormone (TSH), usually caused by a benign tumor in the pituitary gland. This happens rarely.
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Hyperthyroidism can be caused by the following:

  • Graves’ disease: In this case, the thyroid gland might be overactive and make too much hormone. This is also known as diffuse toxic goiter (enlarged endocrine gland).
  • Thyroiditis: This disorder can hurt or make no difference at all. When a woman has thyroiditis, the endocrine lets out hormones that it has been storing. This could last a few weeks or a few months.
  • Nodules: Nodules in the endocrine that work too much can cause hyperthyroidism. A toxic autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is the name for a single nodule, while toxic multinodular goiter is the name for a gland with more than one nodule.
  • Excessive iodine: When there is too much of the mineral iodine in the body, which is needed to make enough hormones, the butterfly-shaped organ produces more hormones than it needs. Some medicines, like the heart medicine amiodarone and cough syrups, have too much iodine.

You may be at a higher risk of developing thyroid disease
if you have a family history of thyroid disease.

Thyroid Problems in Women

Hypothyroidism when 50 years or olderThyroid Problems in Older Women

Older women with hypothyroidism may experience several different symptoms that can affect their quality of life. These symptoms may include fatigue, weight gain, difficulty concentrating or thinking clearly, and changes in mood or behavior.

Additionally, some women may experience sexual problems such as loss of libido or difficulties with sexual performance.

Overall, endocrine problems are a common concern for older women and can significantly impact their overall well-being. If you suspect that you may be experiencing symptoms of hypothyroidism, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. With the proper care and support, older women with hypothyroidism can live healthy and fulfilling lives.

Health problems in younger femalesThyroid problems in younger women

Thyroid problems are common in younger females and can affect many aspects of their lives, including their energy levels and weight. These issues can also impact a woman’s sex life and sexual performance, as they may lead to a decreased libido and reduced sexual responsiveness.

There are many possible causes of thyroid problems in younger women, including conditions such as hypothyroidism or Hashimoto’s disease. These conditions can result in imbalances in hormones within the body, which can cause various symptoms.

Some of the most common symptoms associated with thyroid disorders in young females include fatigue, weight gain, slowed metabolism, changes in mood or behavior, brain fog, depression or anxiety, hair loss or changes in skin quality, changes in menstrual cycles or fertility levels, and muscle aches or joint pain.

Symptoms in women

The symptoms of thyroid disease in women can vary depending on the type of thyroid problem that you have.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism (under-active thyroid) in women

The signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism in females vary depending on how bad the hormone deficiency is. Symptoms tend to come on slowly, so you might not realize you have had a problem for a few years.

Common symptoms of hypothyroidism in females include:

  • Tiredness
  • Being sensitive to the cold
  • Gaining weight
  • Having constipation
  • Feeling sad
  • Slow thoughts and moves
  • Pain and weakness in the muscles
  • Muscle cramps
  • Scaly and dry skin
  • Weak hair and nails
  • Lack of desire (sex drive)
  • Pain, tingling, and numbness in hand and fingers (carpal tunnel syndrome)
  • Irregular periods or heavy ones

How is overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) treated in women?

Most of the time, you’ll be sent to an endocrinologist, a specialist in hormone problems who will plan your treatment. The main ways to treat an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) in women are:


Most of the time, thionamides are used to treat an overactive thyroid in women. They stop the gland from making more hormones than it needs to. Carbimazole and propylthiouracil are the most common ones.

Usually, you’ll need to take medicine for 1 to 2 months before you start to feel better. You may also be given a medicine called a beta blocker to help ease some of your symptoms while you wait for your treatment to start.

When your endocrine hormone levels are under control, you may be able to stop taking your medicine slowly. But some women must keep taking medication for years or even for the rest of their lives.

Radioactive Iodine Treatment

Radioactive iodine treatment is a type of radiotherapy that kills the cells in the thyroid gland. This makes the gland make less hormones. It’s a very effective way to treat a gland that works too much.

You are given a drink or a pill with iodine and a small amount of radiation. Your gland absorbs the radiation. Most people only need to go to the doctor once.

You may not feel the full benefits for a few weeks or months, so you might need to take a medicine such as carbimazole or propylthiouracil temporarily.

Radioactive iodine treatment uses a very low dose of radiation, but there are some precautions you’ll need to take afterward:

  • Stay away from children and pregnant women for a few days or weeks.
  • Try not to get pregnant for at least six months.
  • Treatment with radioactive iodine is not suitable if your are pregnant or nursing. It’s also not good if your overactive thyroid is making your eyes hurt very badly.


Sometimes, you may need surgery to remove all or part of the organ. This could be your best choice if:

  • Your gland is very swollen because of a large goitre.
  • An overactive thyroid is causing severe eye problems.
  • You can’t get other, less invasive treatments.
  • Your symptoms come back even though you’ve tried other treatments

Most of the time, it’s best to take out the whole gland because it stops hyperthyroidism symptoms from returning. But since you don’t have the organ anymore, you’ll have to take medicine for the rest of your life. Doctors use these same medicines to treat an underactive thyroid.

How is underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) treated in women?

Treating an underactive thyroid in women involves taking daily hormone replacement tablets, known as levothyroxine, to raise thyroxine levels.

Typically, the dose of levothyroxine is gradually increased until the correct level is reached. This can take some time, as it can take a while for your body to adjust to the new hormone levels.

Once you’re taking the correct dose of levothyroxine, you’ll typically need regular blood tests once a year to monitor your hormone levels and ensure that your treatment is still effective.

Not receiving proper treatment  can lead to many complications, including heart disease, goitre, pregnancy problems, and a life-threatening condition called myxoedema coma. With proper treatment, however, you should be able to lead a normal and healthy life.

Thyroid FAQ

What are the early warning signs of a possible thyroid disease?

Unexplained tiredness, constipation, dry skin, problems with body temperature, weight gain, hoarseness, and mood changes typically signal an early warning of a thyroid problem. Even though these symptoms seem to have nothing to do with each other, they can all add to thyroid problems.

What causes thyroid problems in females?

Several things can cause thyroid problems in women, including autoimmune diseases, iodine deficiency, certain medications, surgery, and radiation therapy.

Is thyroid disease related to menopause?

There isn’t a clear link between the disease and menopause, but some studies have found that women with thyroid problems are more likely to experience menopause at an earlier age. Additionally, women who have had their gland removed are also more likely to experience menopause earlier than average.

How can I prevent thyroid problems?

There is no one definitive answer to this question, as there are a number of different factors that can contribute to thyroid issues. However, some lifestyle changes that may help reduce your risk of developing thyroid problems include quitting smoking, limiting your alcohol consumption, and maintaining healthy thyroid autoimmunity. Regular checkups with your doctor can help catch thyroid problems early before they become more serious.

What is postpartum thyroiditis?

Postpartum thyroiditis is a condition that can occur after having a baby when the thyroid gland becomes inflamed. This condition affects a small percentage of pregnant women, about 3 in 100 to 2 in 25.

What is a goiter?

Goiters are unusually big thyroid glands. It’s rare but only temporary and can go away independently. In the same way, it could be a thyroid problem that needs to be treated. Goiter is common in women, especially before they reach menopause. When you have goiter, your throat or head may swell up. It’s big enough that you can hold it and see it. You might find it harder to cough or swallow if you have a big goiter. Sometimes swelling in the neck can result from thyroid cancer or thyroid nodules, lumps that grow inside the thyroid.

The Parafollicular Apparatus

A Comprehensive Analysis

The parafollicular apparatus, often referred to as the thyroid, is an integral aspect of the endocrine system. It’s an H-shaped, endocrine structure located anterior to the trachea and inferior to the larynx. This gland is responsible for vital physiological operations, and it is indispensable to homeostasis.

The glandular mechanism has two principal cell types: the thyrocytes and the C cells. Thyrocytes, or follicular cells, form the bulk of the gland and are responsible for the synthesis of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), collectively referred to as thyroid hormones. These hormones play a crucial role in metabolic regulation as well as normal growth and development, specifically during brain development in fetal and neonatal stages. Meanwhile, C cells, otherwise known as parafollicular cells, produce and release calcitonin, a peptide hormone that participates in the management of calcium homeostasis.

Follicular Cells and Iodine

The follicular cells synthesize the endocrine hormones through a series of biochemical reactions involving iodine. The diet provides iodine. Follicular cells actively transport this iodine, where it undergoes oxidation and binds to tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin. These cells produce and secrete this protein. This process, known as organification, leads to the formation of monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT). The coupling of these two molecules results in the formation of T4 and T3.

The secretion of thyroid hormones is under the stringent regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. The hypothalamus releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH, in turn, acts on the gland to stimulate the synthesis and release of hormones. This feedback mechanism ensures the maintenance of a delicate hormonal balance crucial for metabolic homeostasis.

The parafollicular apparatus also plays a significant role in calcium homeostasis. The parafollicular cells or C cells produce calcitonin, a hormone that functions to decrease blood calcium levels. It does so by inhibiting osteoclast activity, thereby reducing bone resorption and calcium release from the bones into the bloodstream.

Dysfunction of this glandular structure can manifest as several disorders, including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, goiter, thyroiditis, and cancer. Each of these conditions presents unique clinical features and requires specific management strategies.

Wrapping things up, the parafollicular apparatus, even with its modest size, significantly contributes to maintaining the body’s metabolic balance and calcium regulation. Ongoing research about its functions and the pathophysiology of related disorders persistently deepens our knowledge of this essential endocrine gland and refines our treatment approaches.